Water treatment is performed so as to enhance water quality. The processes employed for water treatment depend upon the standard of the water system . altogether cases, water has got to be disinfected so as to deactivate any existing microorganisms present in water. So far, this system was proved to be the foremost important for the protection of human life. it's commonly done using chlorine or dioxide , and in many cases, other processes also are used like ozonation and ultraviolet irradiation. If the water originates from a surface water system like a river, lake, or dam, then the suspended particles are the foremost important problem. Different techniques to get rid of suspended particles include the addition of coagulants and therefore the use of membranes. If the water originates from groundwater through mountain springs, usually, the water quality is sweet , and in most cases, only disinfection is required. However, if the water originates from groundwater wells, it's going to be rich in metals that require to be removed through chemical precipitation. Softening is another technique commonly wont to remove hardness just in case water is tough , which is performed by the addition of lime and subsequent precipitation of calcium as carbonate and magnesium as milk of magnesia .
A common water treatment plant involves the subsequent processes: (1) pretreatment to get rid of big objects which will be found within the pipelines that transport water from the availability to the treatment plant, (2) softening and/or coagulation for the removal of hardness and/or suspended particles, (3) filtering through sand beds to get rid of any fine particles that are left within the water stream, (4) activated charcoal filter or air/water jet to sorb or oxidize any dissolved organic matter, (5) disinfection for the removal of any pathogens left, and (6) storage of the disinfected water before distribution to the consumers.